Author: Beston Husen Arif1
1University of Sulaimani, Department Politics and International Relations, Sulaimani, Iraq
Abstract: The concept of soft power has recently become more integrated in China’s diplomatic strategy and foreign policy. China’s utilization of hard power only is insufficient if it wishes to be an active player on the international stage. It also needs to employ soft power to stimulate its influences and leadership in world politics. This study focuses on the argument that soft power can play a significant role in shaping China’s charm image among other countries. It also discusses that China’s aspiration to be a more powerful state in the region depends on its ability to put more efforts into its soft power tactics. To this end, China has employed various tools of soft power’s sources including Chinese culture, language, arts, aids, trades and investments to promote its influences abroad. China’s interest in using soft power comes from its demanding national interests. These national interests include trying to secure a peaceful environment for its economic growth, to accommodate for its increasing energy needs, and also to minimise the influence of other powers, particularly the United States.
Keywords: China, Soft Power, Hard Power, Foreign Policy, National Interests
Blanchard, J.M.,& Lu, F. (2012). Thinking hard about soft power: a review and critique of the literature on China and soft power. Asian Perspective, 36(4), 565-589.
Callahan, W.A. (2015). Identity and security in China: the negative soft power of the China dream. Politics, 35(3-4), 216-229.
Cheng, S.S. (2011). The approaches of China‟s soft power strategy. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 61, 53-64.
Chen, G., Chen, J., Deng, X.C.X., Deng, Y., Kurlantzick, J., Pang, Z., Wibowo, I., Zhang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhao, S., & Zhu, Z. (2009). Soft Power: China’s Emerging Strategy in International Politics. Lexington Books.
Cho, Y.N., & Jeong, J.H. (2008). China’s soft power: discussions, resources, and prospects. Asian Survey, 48(3), 453-472.
Fan, Y. (2008). Soft power: Power of attraction or confusion? Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. 4(2), 147-158.
Gil, J. (2008). The promotion of Chinese language learning and China‟s soft power. Asian Social Science. 4(10), 116-122.
Gill, B., & Huang, Y. (2006). Sources and limits of Chinese „soft power‟. Survival, 48(2), 17-36.
Hu, J. (2005). Build towards a Harmonious World of Lasting Peace and Common Prosperity. Speech delivered the High-Level Plenary Meeting of the United Nations 60th Session, New York, 15 September 2005. Retrieved on January 22, 2017 from http://www.un.org/webcast/summit2005/statements15/china050915eng.pdf
Hartig, F. (2012). Cultural diplomacy with Chinese characteristics: the case of Confucius institutes in Australia. Communication, Politics & Culture, 42 (2), 256-276.
Huang, Y., & Ding, S. (2006). Dragon‟s underbelly: an analysis of China‟s soft power‟, East Asia, 23, (4), 22-44.
Kurlantzick, J. (2007). Charm Offensive How China’s Soft Power is Transforming the World. Yale University Press.
Li, L., & Hong, X. (2012). The application and revelation of Joseph Nye’s soft power theory. Studies in Sociology of Science, 3(2), 44-48.
Lai, H., & Lu, Y. (2012). China’s Soft Power and International Relations. Routledge.
Lum, T G.; Morrison, W. M., & Vaughn, B. (2008). China’s” soft Power” in Southeast Asia. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
McGiffe, C. (ed) (2009).Chinese soft power and its implication for the united states: competition and cooperation in the developing world: a report of the CSIS smart power initiative, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C.
Mingjiang, L. (2008). China debates soft power‟, The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 2(2), 287-308.
Nye, J.S. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Public Affairs, New York.
Nye, J.S. (2012). China’s Soft Power Deficit, The Wall Street Journal, Retrieved on January 15, 2017 from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304451104577389923098678842
Shambaugh, D. (2015). China’s Soft-Power Push. Foreign Affairs, 94, 99-107.
Vyas, U. (2010), Soft Power in Japan-China Relations: State, Sub-State and Non-State Relations, Hoboken, Taylor and Francis, New York.
Xi, J.P. (2014). Elevate Soft Power, Realize the Chinese Dream. People’s Daily (English Edition) Retrieved on January 15, 2017 from http://en.people.cn/90785/8500899.
Wolf, C.; Wang, X., & Warner, E. (2013). China’s Foreign Aid and Government-Sponsored Investment Activities. National Defences. Research Institute
Wuthnow, J (2008). The concept of soft power in China’s strategic discourse. Issues and Studies – Institute of International Relations, 44(2), 1-28.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), March 2017, Vol.3, No.3