Authors: Sara Israa1 & Ivan Suneel2
1Forman Christian College, Zahoor Elahi Road, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan
2Forman Christian College, Zahoor Elahi Road, Gulberg III, Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract: The objective of the study was to ascertain the relationship between workplace bullying, resilience and feelings associated with job satisfaction. The study was conducted in a university setting amongst the university academic staff. The data was collected from administrative staff at a private university in Pakistan. Three questionnaires along with the demographic profile were used to measure the variables. The questionnaires used were: Work and Meaning Inventory (Steger, Dik & Duffy, 2012), Brief Resilience Scale (Smith, Dalen, Wiggins, Tooley, Christopher, & Bernard, 2008), and Negative Acts Questionnaire Revised (Einarsen, Hoel & Notelears 2009). Descriptive and Inferential Statistics were done. The results indicated a weak correlation between the variables under study i.e., workplace bullying, resilience and job satisfaction. The results are discussed in light of review of the literature. There are myriad implications of the study, for example to make people in workplace setting aware of workplace bullies and to make laws to control it so that the workers can enjoy a healthy and positive work environment.
Keywords: Workplace Bullying, Job Satisfaction, Resilience, Pakistan, Academic Staff
Aryanne, O. (2009). Managing workplace bullying. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
Allanson, P. B., Lester, R. R., & Notar, C. E. (2015). A History of Bullying.
Beswick, J., Gore, J., & Palferman, D. (2006) Bullying at work: A review of the literature. Derbyshire: Health and Safety Laboratory. Harpur Hill, Buxton.
Bashir, M., Jianqiao, L., Abrar, M., & Ghazanfar, F. (2012). The organization’s cultural values: A study of public sector universities in Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management, 6(10), 3686.
Bano, S., & Malik, S. (2013).Impact of workplace bulying on organizational outcome. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 7(3), 618-627.
Celik, M. (2011). A theoretical approach to the job satisfaction. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 4, 7-14.
Cazan, A., & Dumitrescu, S. A. (2015). Exploring the relationship between adolescent resilience, self-perception and locus of control. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 6.
Devonish, D. (2013). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors: The mediating role ofpsychological well-being. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630-647
Djurkovic, N., McCormack, D. & Casmir, G. (2004). The physical and psychological effects of workplace bullying and their relationship to intention to leave: A test of psychosomatic and disability hypothesis. International Journal of Organizational Theory &Behaviour, 7(4), 469-497.
Donegan, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3(1), 33-42.
Einarsen, S., & Hoel, H. (2001). The Negative Acts Questionnaire: Development, validation and revision of measure of bullying at work. Paper presented at the 9th European Congress of Work and Organisational Psychology, Prague,Czechoslovakia.
Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the negative acts questionnaire-revised. Work & Stress, 23(1), 24-44.
Heugten, K. (2013). Resilience as an underexplored outcome of workplace bullying. Qualitative Health Research, 23(3), 291-301.
Jackson, D., Firtko, A., & Edenborough, M. (2007). Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(1), 1-9.
Lee, R., & Brotheridge, C. (2006). When prey turns predatory: Workplace bullying as a predictor of counter aggression/bullying,coping and well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15 (3), 352-377.
Markovits, Y., Davis, A. J., & Van Dick, R. V. (2010). The link between job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Differences between public and private sector employees. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 7(1), 77-99.
Myers, D. G. (2010). Social psychology. New York, NY:Mike Sugarman.
Maidaniuc-Chirila, T. (2015). Mediation roles of resilience and coping strategies on the relationship between workplace bullying and Romanian employees’ depressive symptoms. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 6(3).
Mete, E. S., & Sökmen, A. (2016). The influence of workplace bullying on employee’s job performance, job satisfaction and turnover intention in a newly established private hospital. International Review of Management and Business Research, 5(1), 65.
O’Moore, M., & Lynch, J. (2007). Leadership, working environment and workplace bullying. International Journal Of Organization Theory And Behavior, 10(1), 95.
Oladapo, V., & Banks, L. T. (2013). Management bullies: The effect on employees. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 4(4), 107.
Olsen, E., Bjaalid, G., & Mikkelsen, A. (2017). Work climate and the mediating role of workplace bullying related to job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability: A study among hospital nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 73(11), 2709-2719.
Namie, G. (2003). Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. Ivey Business Journal, 68(2), 1-6.
Salin, D. (2003). Ways of explaining workplace Bullying: A review of enabling, motivating and precipitating structures and processes in the work Environment. Human Relations, 56 (10), 10-17.
Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012).Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 1069072711436160.
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 194-200.
Shi, Y., Guo, H., & Zhang, S. (2018). Impact of workplaceincivility against new nurses on job burn-out: a cross-sectionalstudy in China. BMJ Open. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020461
Tepper, B. J. (2000).Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43(2), 178-190.
Yamada, D. (2003). Workplace bullying and the law: Towards a transnational consensus? In S. Eppnarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International research and practice perspectives, pp. 399–411.
Yahaya, A., Ing, T. C., Lee, G. M., Yahaya, N., Boon, Y., Hashim, S., …& Jesus, S. K. C. I. (2012). The impact of workplace bullying on work performance. Archives Des Sciences, 65(4), 18-28.
Wimmer, S. (2009). Views on gender differences in bullying in relation to language and gender role socialisation. Griffith Working Papers in Pragmatics and Intercultural Communication, 2, 18-26.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), December 2018, Vol.5, No.2