Adolfo Ramos1 & Seidu Sofo2
1Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition & Recreation, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition & Recreation, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri, USA
Abstract: The study examined the impact of a secondary physical education teaching techniques course on teacher candidates’ (PETC) perceptions about their early field experiences. Participants included 33 PETCs (78.79% males and 21.21% females) enrolled in the techniques course. A 5-item open-ended questionnaire served as the main data source. The questionnaire assessed PECTs’ perceptions on three components of their teacher education program: PE methods/techniques courses and professional education courses (Block I, Block II, and Block III). In addition, it sought PECTs’ suggestions for future Block III teacher candidates. The questionnaire was administered to the PETCs at the beginning and at the end of the semester. Data were analyzed utilizing qualitative content analysis – inductive category development and a deductive category application. The inductive analysis identified eight categories: content knowledge, instructional strategies, planning, self-efficacy, technology, classroom management, assessment, and professionalism. The deductive analysis indicated highest percentage of comments for both pretest (31.61%) and posttest (30.89%) were related to physical education methods/techniques and early experiences, followed by suggestions for future students, 28.73% and 24.39% respectively.
Keyword: Early Field Experiences, Physical Education, Teacher Candidates
Aiken, I. P., & Day, B. D. (1999). Early field experiences in preservice teacher education: Research and student perspectives. Action in Teacher Education, 21 (3), 7–12.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Barney, D. & Pleban, F. (2006). Pre-service physical education teacher’s perceptions of teaching before and after a semester long elementary physical education practicum experience. The Physical Educator, (63) 46-52.
Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & William, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(1), 9-21.
Bryant, L, Stillwell, J, & Nichols, B. (2013). Future teachers’ perceptions of an elementary physical education practicum experience. Journal of the European Teacher Education Network, 8, 9-24.
Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (2019) CAEP 2013 Standards. Retrieved on January 2, 2021 from http://caepnet.org/~/media/Files/caep/standards/caep-standards-one-pager-0219.pdf?la=en.
Chepyator-Thomson, J. & Liu, W. (2003). Pre-service teachers’ reflections on student teaching experiences: Lessons learned and suggestions for reform in PETE programs. Physical Educator, 60 (2), 2-12.
Cruickshank, D. R. (1990). Research that informs teachers and teacher educators. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Curtner-Smith, M. (1996). The impact of an early field experience on preservice physical education teacher’ conceptions of teaching. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, (15) 224-250.
Curtner-Smith, M. D. (1999). The more things change the more they stay the same: Factors influencing teachers’ interpretations and delivery of national curriculum physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 4(1), 75-97.
Dodds, P., Placek, J., Doolittle, S., Pinkham, K., Ratliffe, T., & Portman, P. (1992). Teacher/coach recruits: Background profiles, occupational decision factors, and comparisons with recruits in other physical education occupations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11(2), 161-176.
Doolittle, S. A., Dodds, P., & Placek, J. H. (1993). Persistence of beliefs about teaching during formal training of preservice teachers.
In S. Stroot (Ed.), Socialization into physical education [Monograph]. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 12(4), 355-365.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2012). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Frieberg, H. J. (1995). Promoting reflective practices. In G. A. Slick (Ed.), Emerging trends in teacher preparation: The future of field experiences, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 25–42.
Graber, K. (1995). The influence of teacher education programs on the beliefs of student teachers: General pedagogical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and teacher education course work. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 14(2), 157-178.
Grossman, P., Compton, C., Igra, D., Ronfeldt, M., Shahan, E. & Williamson, P. (2009). Teachers College Record, 111 (9), 2055–2100.
Grossman, P. (2011). Framework for teaching practice: A brief history of an idea. Teachers College Record, 113(12), 2836–2843.
Gurvitch, R., & Metzler, M. W. (2009). The effects of laboratory-based and field-based practicum experience on pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(3), 437-443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.08.006.
Guyton, E., & Byrd, D. (Eds.) (2000). Standards for field experience in teacher education. Reston, VA: Association of Teacher Educators.
Haney, W., Russell, M., Gulek, C., & Fierros, E. (1998). Drawing on education: Using student drawing to promote middle school improvement. Schools in the Middle, 7(3), 38-43.
Hixon, E., & So, H.-J. (2009). Technology’s role in field experiences for preservice teacher training. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 294–304.
Ingersoll, C., Jenkins, J. M., & Lux, K. (2014). Teacher knowledge development in early field experiences. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(2), 363-382.
Itin, C. (1999). Reasserting the philosophy of experiential education as a vehicle for change in the 21st century. The Journal of Experiential Education, 22(2), 91-98.
Jaquith, C. E. (1995). Organizing and managing field experience programs. In G.A. Slick (Ed.), Preparing new teachers: Operating successful field experience programs (pp. 13-28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Jenkins, J. M. (2014). Pre-service teacher observations of experienced teachers. The Physical Educator, 71(2), 303-319.
Lambert, L. T. (1999). Standards-based assessment of student learning: A comprehensive approach. In D. Tannehill, (Ed.). Assessment series. Reston: National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
Lund, J. L. (1993). The role of accountability and assessment in physical education: A pedagogical view. In J.E. Rink (Ed.), Critical crossroads: Middle and secondary school physical education (pp. 102-112). Reston: National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
Matanin, M. & Collier, C. (2003). Longitudinal analysis of preservice teachers’ beliefs about teaching physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(2), 153-168.
Matanin, M., & Tannehill, D. (1994). Assessment and grading practices in physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 13(4), 395-405.
Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2), Art. 20. Retrieved on November 24, 2020 from
McCaughtry, N., & Rovegno, I. (2003). Development of pedagogical content knowledge: Moving from blaming students to predicting skillfulness, recognizing motor development, and understanding emotion. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(4), 255–368.
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (2013). Teacher standards: Missouri educator evaluation system. Retrieved on January 1, 2021 from https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/TeacherStandards.pdf.
Moore, R. (2003). Reexamining the field experiences of preservice teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(1), 31-42.
Pendergast, D., Garvis, S., & Keogh, J. (2011). Pre-service student-teacher self-efficacy beliefs: An insight into the making of teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(12), 46-58.
Posner, G. J. (2005). Field experience: A guide to reflective teaching (6th Ed.), White Plains, NY: Allyn and Bacon.
Retallick, M. S., & Miller, G. (2010). Teacher preparation in career and technical education: A model for developing and researching early field experiences. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 25(1), 62-75.
Rovegno, I. (1992). Learning to teach in a field-based method course: The development of pedagogical content knowledge. Teaching and Teacher Education, 8(1), 69–82. doi:10.1016/0742-051X (92)90041-Z.
Rovegno, I. (1993). The development of curricular knowledge: A case of problematic pedagogical content knowledge during advanced knowledge acquisition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(1), 56-68.
Rovegno, I. (1994). Teaching within a curricular zone of safety: school culture and the situated nature of student teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65(3), 269-279. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.1994.10607628.
Rovegno, I. (1998). The development of in-service teachers’ knowledge of a constructivist approach to physical education: Teaching beyond activities. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(2), 147- 162.
Rovegno, I, (2003). Teachers’ knowledge construction. In S. Silverman and C. D. Ennis, Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction (2nd ed., pp. 295-310). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
Stemler, S. (2000) An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 7(17), 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7275/z6fm-2e34.
Stroot, S. A., & Whipple, C. E. (2003). Organizational socialization: Factors affecting beginning teachers. In S. Silverman and C. D.
Ennis, Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction (2nd ed.; pp. 311-328). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Tsangaridou, N. (2002). Enacted pedagogical content knowledge in physical education: A case study of a prospective classroom teacher. European Physical Education, 8(1), 21–36. doi:10.1177/1356336X020081002.
Tsangaridou, N. (2006). Teachers’ beliefs. In D. Kirk, D. Macdonald, and M. O ‘Sullivan (Eds.), The handbook of physical education (pp. 486—501). London: Sage.
Wasicsko, M. M., Callahan, C. J., & Wirtz, P. (2004). Integrating dispositions into the conceptual framework: Four a priori questions. KVA Journal, 23(1), 1-8.
Wright, S. (2016). Professional socialization issues pertaining to physical education majors. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16(1), 57-69. DOI:10.7752/jpes.2016.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), June 2021, Vol.8, No.2
Copyright © 2014 by Tishk International University, Developed and Designed by RAS Groups and M. Albay (IU Web Office Manager)
replica rolex is among the most international greatest perplexing watch survey of the brand. Put to use fake watches during the world-wide industry is also extremely well known.Customers from all of areas of life really like breitling replica watches. The initial financial investment valuation belongs to the benefits associated with best replica watches.