Esther Amprofi Boham1 & & Lydia Aframea Dankyi 2 & Frederick Ocansey 3 & Godwin Awabil4
1Counselling Unit, Cape Coast Technical University, Ghana
2College of Distance Education, Counselling Unit, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
3Counselling Centre, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
4Counselling Centre, University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Abstract: Low self-esteem can pose serious threats to the general well-being of individuals and if not checked may lead to the development of mental health problems. The study sought to ascertain the effects of assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring on low self-esteem among technical university students in Ghana. The study employed the quasi-experimental design. The simple random sampling method was used to select 60 participants for the study. Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem (RSE) Scales were used for the data collection. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability co-efficient for the instrument was 0.77. The statistical tools used for data analysis were one-way analysis of covariance (One-way ANCOVA) and two-way analysis of covariance (two-way ANCOVA). The results showed that participants who were exposed to assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring recorded better scores in the post-test scores as compared to participants in the control group. It was concluded that assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring were effective in enhancing participants’ self-esteem levels. It was therefore, recommended that counsellors should employ the two therapies to improve the self-esteem of students.
Keywords: Assertiveness Training, Cognitive Restructuring, Low Self-Esteem, University Students, Quasi-Experimental Study
Published: December 1, 2021
Addison, A.K., Antwi, T., & Avonokadzi, I. K. (2014). Impact of cognitive restructuring on students with low self-esteem and academic performance in Dambai College of education in the Volta Region of Ghana. Projournal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(3), 1-16.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anhalt, R. (2015). Low self-esteem: Gender differences. Retrieved from https://onmogul.com/stories/low-self-esteem-gender-differences
Anyamene, A., Chinyelu, N., & Nneka, E. (2016). Effects of assertive training on the low self-esteem of secondary school students in Anambra State. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(1), 65-78.
Akbari, B., Mohamadi, J., & Sadeghi, S. (2012). Effect of assertiveness training methods on self-esteem and general self-efficacy female students of Islamic Azad University, Anzali Branch. Journal of Basic and Applied Science Research, 2(3), 2265-2269.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
https://www.uky.edu › Bandura › Bandura1977PR
Bednar, L. R., Peterson S. R. (1995). Self-esteem: Paradoxes and innovations in clinical theory & practice. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Bernard, L. C., Hutchison, S., Lavin, A., & Pennington, P. (1996). Ego-strength, hardiness, self-esteem, self-efficacy, optimism, and maladjustment: Health-related personality constructs and the “Big Five” model of personality. Assessment, 3(2), 115-131.
DuBois, D. L.,Burk-Braxton, C., Swenson, L. P., Tevendale, H. D. & Hardesty, J. L. (2002). Race and gender influences in early adolescence: Investigation of an integrative model. Child Development 73(5), 1573-92.
Carlson, C., Uppal, S. & Prosser, E. C. (2000). Ethnic differences in processes contributing to Rhe self-esteem of early adolescent girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence 20(1), 44-67.
CBT Los Angeles. (n.d.). Cognitive behavioural therapy. Retrieved from www.cogbtherapy.com
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, MA: Brooks/Cole.
Emmanuel, O. O., Okreke, C., & Anayochi, N. (2015). Assertiveness training and cognitive restructuring technique on self-esteem of female undergraduate victims of relationship violence in South-West Nigeria. European Journal of Educational and Development Psychology, 3(2), 15-29.
Hajek, A. (2017). The role of self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism for using routine health check-ups in a population-based sample. A longitudinal perspective. Preventive Medicine, 105, 47-51.
Hamoud, S., El Dayem, S., & Ossman, L. (2011). The effect of an assertiveness training program on assertiveness skills and self-esteem of faculty nursing students. Journal of American Science 7, 1085-1096.
Harter, S. (1986). Processes underlying the construction, maintenanand enhancement of the self concept in children. Psychological Perspectives on the Self, 3, 136-182.
Hollandsworth, J. G., & Wall, K. E. (1977). Sex differences in assertive behaviour: An empirical investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24(3), 217-222.
Iruloh, B. N., & Amadi, G. N. (2008). Psychological Perspective of Drug Abuse, Prevention and Treatment. University of Port Harcourt Press, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Kernis, M. H. (2006). Self-esteem issues and answers: A source book of current perspectives. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Khayat, A. H. (2017). Analysis of the impact of cognitive behaviour counselling on the self-esteem of visually impaired subjects. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 7(5), 110-116.
Lim, L., Saulsman, L., & Nathan, P. (2005). Improving Self-Esteem. Perth: Australia: Western, Australia, Centre for Clinical Interventions.
Liza, S. (2010). Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy on self-efficacy among high school students. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Mysore, India.
Mahmoud, S., & Hamid, A. R. (2013). Effectiveness of assertiveness training programme on self-esteem and academic achievement in adolescent girls at secondary school at Abha city. Journal of American Science, 9 (8), 262-269.
Makinde, B. O., & Akinteye, A, J. (2014). Effects of mentoring and assertiveness training on adolescents’ self-esteem in Lagos State secondary schools. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 2(3), 78-88.
Mann, M., Hosman, C. M. H., Schaalma, P. H., & de Vries, N. K. (2004). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health. Health Education Research, 19(4), 357-372.
Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Cognitive behavioral therapy. Retrieved, from https://ww w.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/about /pac-203846
McLeod, S. A. (2012). Low self-esteem. Retrieved from www.simplypsych ology.org/self-esteem.html
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Self-concept. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology. org/self-concept.html
Mills, H., Reiss, N., & Dombeck, M. (2008). Cognitive restructuring. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhelp.net/articl es/cognitive-restruct uring-info/
Mulligan, A. (2011). Evidence In-Sight request summary: The relationship between self-esteem and mental health outcomes in children and youth. Ontario Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health.
Nair, R. J. (2016). Self-image and self-esteem for a positive outlook.
Nordstrom, A. H., Goguen, L. M. S., & Hiester, M. (2014). The effect of social anxiety and self-esteem on college adjustment, academics, and retention. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 159-181.
Overholser, J. C., Adams, D. M., Lehnert, K. L., & Brinkman, D. C. (1995). Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(7), 919-928.
Özşaker, M. (2013). Assertiveness and self-esteem in Turkish adolescents: A study on athletes and non-athletes. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 12(1), 1-6
Pasha, H. S., & Munaf, S. (2013). Relationship of self-esteem and adjustment in traditional university Students. Procedia- Social and Behavioural Sciences 84, 999-1004.
Quarcoo, J. D. N. (2013). The determinants of self- esteem in the Ghanaian cultural context. (Unpublished master’s thesis), University of Ghana.
Rogers, C. R. (1980). Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A psychotherapist’s view of psychotherapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Rowan, K. (2014). Causes of low self-esteem: What makes your confidence drop? Retrieved from https://blog.udemy.com › Students › Lifestyle
Sert, A. G. (2003). The effect of an assertiveness training on the assertiveness and self-esteem level of 5th grade children. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University.
Shimizu, T., Kubota, S., Mishima, N., & Nagata, S. (2004). Relationship between self-esteem and assertiveness training among Japanese hospital nurses. Journal of Occupational Health, 46(4), 296-298.
Sihera, E. (2015). The three most common types of low self-esteem. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/three-most-common-types-low-self-esteem-elaine-sihera
Sorensen, M. J. (2003). The handbook for building healthy self-esteem in children. Wolf Publishing Company.
Tannous, F. G. (2015). The effectiveness of assertiveness training in improving self- esteem among a sample of students with low emotional-behavioural traits. InternationalJournal of Adult and Non-Formal Education, 3(1), 55-61.
UC Davis Health (n.d.). Self-esteem. Retrieved, from https://www.ucdmc.ucd avis.edu/hr/hrdepts/asap/Documents/Self_esteem.pdf
Venzin, E. (2014). How does low self-esteem negatively affect you? Psych Central. Retrieved from https://psychcentral. com/blog/archives/2014/ 03/01/how-does-low-self-esteem-
Warland, J., McKellar, L., & Diaz, M. (2014). Assertiveness training for undergraduate midwifery students. Nurse education in practice, 14(6), 752-756.
Wild, L. G., Flisher, A. J., & Lombard, C. (2004). Suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents: Associations with depression and six domains of self-esteem. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 611–624.
Willson, R., & Branch, R. (2019). Cognitive behavioural therapy for dummies. John Wiley & Sons.
Yeo, L. S., & Choi, P. M. (2011). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for children with behavioural difficulties in the Singapore mainstream school setting. School Psychology International, 32(6), 616-631.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), December 2021, Vol.8, No.4