William Vincent N. Soria1 & Genesis B. Naparan2
1Department of Education, Tangub City, Philippines
2Saint Columban College – Pagadian City, Philippines
Abstract: This study explored the coping strategies of the teachers in new normal education. The study used a qualitative transcendental phenomenology design to explore the coping strategies of teachers in the implementation of radio-based instruction and modular distance learning during the pandemic. The researchers interviewed ten teacher participants from the Division of Tangub City, Philippines. Following the phenomenological data analysis, categories emerged based from the interview transcripts. The coping strategies of teachers in the new normal are problem-focused and emotion-focused. The problem-focused coping strategies are problem-solving, time management, and social support. For emotion-focused coping, the sub-themes are reframing, having a positive attitude, and praying for guidance. Thus, teachers, regardless of their years of experience, have similar coping strategies to overcome challenges. The study also found the importance of the administrators’ role in developing training and webinars for the teachers’ psychological health to be efficient and effective in their work.
Keywords: Coping Strategies, Problem-Focused Coping Strategy, Emotion-Focused Coping Strategy, Radio-Based Instruction
Published: June 19, 2022
Abante, A., Cruz, R., Guevarra, D., Lanada, M. I. B., Macale, M. J. S., Roque, M. W. B., … & Cabrera, W. C. (2021). A comparative analysis on the challenges of online learning modality and modular learning modality: A basis for training program. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research And Analysis, 4(04), 463-476. https://www.ijmra.in/v4i4/Doc/17.pdf
Agarin, M. A. L. (2021). The challenges and status of modular learning: its effect to students ‘academic behavior and performance. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. https://eprajournals.com/jpanel/upload/1110pm_64.EPRA%20JOURNALS%207764.pdf
Agayon, A. J. D., Agayon, A. K. R., & Pentang, J. (2022). Teachers in the new normal: Challenges and coping mechanisms in secondary schools. Journal of Humanities and Education Development (JHED), 4. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4026389
Albor, B., Gatchalian-Fortes, A., & Delumen-Albor, M. (2021). Distance Learning Landscape in Bulan Districts. United International Journal for Research &Technology, 2(7). https://3arsh12o1h6x.cdn.shift8web.ca/articles/v2/i7/UIJRTV2I70013.pdf
Al-Fudail, M., & Mellar, H. (2008). Investigating teacher stress when using technology. Computers & Education, 51(3), 1103-1110.
Ancheta, H. B. (2022). The Teaching and Learning Modality in the ‘New Normal’. Institute of Industry and Academic Research Incorporated, 42. https://iiari.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Pedagogy-for-Online-Learning-Theory-Practice.pdf#page=55
Ancheta, R., & Ancheta, H. (2020). The new normal in education: A challenge to the private basic education institutions in the Philippines. International Journal of Educational Management and Development Studies, 1(1). https://iiari.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/The-New-Normal-in-Education-1.pdf
Anzaldo, G. D. (2021). Modular Distance Learning in the new normal education amidst Covid-19. International Journal of Scientific Advances, 2(3), 233-266. https://www.ijscia.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Volume2-Issue3-May-Jun-No.79-263-266.pdf
Biggs, A., Brough, P., & Drummond, S. (2017). Lazarus and Folkman’s psychological stress and coping theory. The handbook of stress and health: A guide to research and practice, 351-364. https://bit.ly/3waIWOc
Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Education in normal, new normal, and next normal: Observations from the past, insights from the present and projections for the future. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(2), i-x. http://www.asianjde.com/ojs/index.php/AsianJDE/article/view/512
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Bravo, A., Buenaflor, N., Baloloy, J., Guarte, L., Osinaga, A., Salartin, A., & Tus, J. (2021). Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction of Public School Teachers in the Philippines. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education. https://bit.ly/39OMSLG
Burgess, S., & Sievertsen, H. H. (2020). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education. VoxEu. Org, 1(2). https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19-education
Cahapay, M. B., & Labrador, M. G. P. (2021). Experiments gone wrong? Lived experience of Filipino teachers in remote science education amid COVID-19 crisis. Asian Journal of Science Education, 3(2), 90-101. http://www.e-repository.unsyiah.ac.id/AJSE/article/view/20981
Careaga-Butter, M., Quintana, M. G. B., & Fuentes-Henríquez, C. (2020). Critical and prospective analysis of online education in pandemic and post-pandemic contexts: Digital tools and resources to support teaching in synchronous and asynchronous learning modalities. Aloma: Revista De Psicologia, Ciències De L’educació I De L’esport Blanquerna, 38(2), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.51698/aloma.2020.38.2.23-32
Carreon, D. B. (2021). Teachers’ Readiness and Challenges in Modular Distance Learning: Basis for a Proposed Action Plan. Available at SSRN 3944096. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3944096
Castroverde, F., & Acala, M. (2021). Modular distance learning modality: Challenges of teachers in teaching amid the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 10(8), 7-15. DOI: 10.5861/ijrse.2021.602
Chan, J. R., Marasigan, A. C., & Santander, N. T. (2021). Multigrade teachers’ experiences and learning assessments on modular remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Research, 10(6), 95-107. DOI: 10.5861/ijrse.2021.6
Chitra, A. (2020). Study on impact of occupational stress on job satisfaction of teachers during Covid-19 pandemic period. Global Development Review, 4(2), 52-62. https://bit.ly/39kDMpG
Dargo, J., & Dimas, M. (2021). Modular distance learning: Its effect in the academic performance of learners in the new normal. Journal of Education, Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 204-208. https://www.learntechlib.org/p/220456/
Dawadi, S., Giri, R. A., & Simkhada, P. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the Education Sector in Nepal: Challenges and Coping Strategies. Online Submission. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED609894
De Villa, J. A., & Manalo, F. K. B. (2020). Secondary teachers’ preparation, challenges, and coping mechanism in the pre-implementation of distance learning in the new normal. IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2(3), 144-154. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3717608
DepEd Order No. 012 and 013 (2020). Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan for Private Schools. www.deped.gov.ph
Dhanani, S., (2019, February 22). The importance of problem solving as a skill – youth inc magazine. Youth Incorporated Magazine. https://youthincmag.com/problem-solving-skill.
Dogniez, J. (2020, January 22). Internet for Education: Advancing Sustainable Development. home.https://www.dotmagazine.online/issues/socially-res ponsibledigitalization/doteditorial-ethical-standards-for-digital/internet-for-education.
DOH AO No. 0015 (2020). DOH Guidelines on the Risk-Based Public Health Standards for COVID-19 Mitigation. www.doh.gov.ph
Espineli, N. P. (2021). Lived Experiences of Master Teachers in Monitoring Modular Distance Learning (MDL) Teachers at TMCNHS. IOER International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 3(1), 148-156. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3811648
Ghanbari, N., & Nowroozi, S. (2022). Iranian EFL teachers’ challenges and coping strategies during COVID-19 pandemic: A case study. The Qualitative Report, 27(3), 605-625. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2022.5066
Hernando-Malipot, M. (2020). DepEd Private Schools allowed opening classes ahead of October 5, Published in the Manila Bulletin, August 15, 2020
Hidalgo-Andrade, P., Hermosa-Bosano, C., & Paz, C. (2021). Teachers’ mental health and self-reported coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador: A mixed-methods study. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 14, 933. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FPRBM.S314844
Insorio, A. O., & Macandog, D. M. (2022). Video lessons via YouTube channel as mathematics interventions in modular distance learning. Contemporary Mathematics and Science Education, 3(1), ep22001. https://doi.org/10.30935/conmaths/11468
Insorio, A. O., & Olivarez, J. A. (2021). Utilizing Facebook and Messenger Groups as Platforms for Delivering Mathematics Interventions in Modular Distance Learning. International Journal of Professional Development, Learners and Learning, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.30935/ijpdll/11290
Iradel, C. M., Cadosales, M. N. Q., & Perez, N. (2021). Lived experience of teaching interns during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Research, Policy & Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education, 11(2), 74-87. https://doi.org/10.37134/jrpptte.vol18.104.22.1681
Karal, H., & Cebi, A. (2012). Views on modular assessment and evaluation process in distance education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2073-2077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.430
Kashyap, S. (2021, January 5). Importance of Time Management in the Workplace. ProofHub. https://www.proofhub.com/articles/importance-of-time-management-in-the-workplace.
Kintanar, F. C., Elladora, S. T., & Cuizon, F. R. (2021). Plight of the Parents of the Filipino Learners in the Implementation of the Modular Distance Learning. International Journal of Educational Science and Research, 11(2), 35-48. https://bit.ly/3wczGcp
Klapproth, F., Federkeil, L., Heinschke, F., & Jungmann, T. (2020). Teachers’ Experiences of Stress and Their Coping Strategies during COVID-19 Induced Distance Teaching. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 4(4), 444-452. https://doi.org/10.33902/JPR.2020062805
Li, H., Ma, M., & Liu, Q. (2022). How the COVID-19 pandemic affects job sentiments of rural teachers. China Economic Review, 72, 101759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chieco.2022.101759
Luaña, J. P. (2021). Why do Parents Answer their Children’s Modules? A Closer Look on Parental Practices and Challenges in Modular Distance Learning. International Journal of Global Community, 4(1-March), 1-16. https://www.riksawan.com/IJGC-RI/index.php/IJGC-RI/article/view/83
MacIntyre, P. D., Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2020). Language teachers’ coping strategies during the Covid-19 conversion to online teaching: Correlations with stress, wellbeing and negative emotions. System, 94, 102352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102352
Mari, E., Lausi, G., Fraschetti, A., Pizzo, A., Baldi, M., Quaglieri, A., … & Giannini, A. M. (2021). Teaching during the pandemic: a comparison in psychological wellbeing among smart working professions. Sustainability, 13(9), 4850. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094850
Mohamad Nasri, N., Husnin, H., Mahmud, S. N. D., & Halim, L. (2020). Mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic: a snapshot from Malaysia into the coping strategies for pre-service teachers’ education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 546-553. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607476.2020.1802582
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Sage publications.
Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, Limitations and Recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pakistan journal of medical sciences, 36(COVID19-S4), S27. doi: 10.12669/pjms.36.COVID19-S4.2785
Naparan, G. & Tulod, R. (2021). Time management of school administrators towards effective administration: A Phenomenological study. The New Educational Review, 63(1), 59-68. DOI: 10.15804/tner.2021.63.1.05
Olivo, M. G. (2021). Parents’ Perception on Printed Modular Distance Learning in Canarem Elementary School: Basis for Proposed Action Plan. International Journal of Multidisciplinary: Applied Business and Education Research, 2(4), 296-309. https://doi.org/10.11594/ijmaber.02.04.03
Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Berasategi Santxo, N., Idoiaga Mondragon, N., & Dosil Santamaría, M. (2021). The psychological state of teachers during the COVID-19 crisis: The challenge of returning to face-to-face teaching. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3861. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.620718
Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Idoiaga Mondragon, N., Bueno-Notivol, J., Pérez-Moreno, M., & Santabárbara, J. (2021). Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among teachers during the CoViD-19 pandemic: a rapid systematic review with meta-analysis. Brain Sciences, 11(9), 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11091172
Pacheco, J. A. (2021). The “new normal” in education. Prospects, 51(1), 3-14. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11125-020-09521-x
Petrakova, A. V., Kanonire, T. N., Kulikova, A. A., & Orel, E. A. (2021). Characteristics of teacher stress during distance learning imposed by the COVID 19 pandemic. Вопросы образования, (1 (eng)). https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/characteristics-of-teacher-stress-during-distance-learning-imposed-by-the-covid-19-pandemic
Pressley, T., Ha, C., & Learn, E. (2021). Teacher stress and anxiety during COVID-19: An empirical study. School Psychology, 36(5), 367–376. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000468
Purwanto, A., Asbari, M., Fahlevi, M., Mufid, A., Agistiawati, E., Cahyono, Y., & Suryani, P. (2020). Impact of work from home (WFH) on Indonesian teacher’s performance during the Covid-19 pandemic: An exploratory study. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 6235-6244. https://bit.ly/3Mjc8rS
Sahar. (2021). Improving Your Computer Literacy: Everything You Need to Know. Indeed, Career Guide. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/how-to-become-computer-literate.
Santamaría, M. D., Mondragon, N. I., Santxo, N. B., & Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N. (2021). Teacher stress, anxiety and depression at the beginning of the academic year during the COVID-19 pandemic. Global Mental Health, 8. https://bit.ly/3FKDJ2I
Schaufeli, W. B. (2015). Coping with job stress. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.14010-3
Sokal, L., Trudel, L. E., & Babb, J. (2020). Canadian teachers’ attitudes toward change, efficacy, and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 1, 100016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedro.2020.100016
Teng, M. F., & Wu, J. G. (2021). Tea or tears: online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Education for Teaching, 47(2), 290-292. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02607476.2021.1886834
Trovela, E. S. (2021). Perceptions of parents and learners to modular distance learning as contemporary teaching strategy. EPRA International Journal of Research and Development. https://doi. org/10.36713/epra7330.
Worldometer (2020). Coronavirus Cases: Worldometer. Retrieved from Worldometer: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus
Zadok-Gurman, T., Jakobovich, R., Dvash, E., Zafrani, K., Rolnik, B., Ganz, A. B., & Lev-Ari, S. (2021). Effect of inquiry-based stress reduction (IBSR) intervention on well-being, resilience and burnout of teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3689. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073689
Zhao, Y., Guo, Y., Xiao, Y., Zhu, R., Sun, W., Huang, W., … & Wu, J. L. (2020). The effects of online homeschooling on children, parents, and teachers of grades 1–9 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e925591-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507793/
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), May 2022, Vol.9, No.2