Author: Jephtar Adu-Mensah1
1University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana
Abstract: One core responsibility of a class teacher is to assess student academic achievement and provide feedback to stakeholders in the form of grades. Grades have now become the academic currency used in determining proficiency or mastering on an educational concept of interest. Teachers are therefore expected to be proficient and reliable in their assessment practices. This study seeks to develop and validate a standardised instrument in measuring teachers’ attitude towards grading practices. The study further explores the attitude of teachers toward grading practices. The instrument development was done through a thorough review of the literature on teachers grading practices. Also, items constructed were carefully based on literature and observations made by the researcher. The developed instrument was administered to 443 teachers at the basic school level. Through an exploratory factor analysis, six dimensions were obtained which include: student’s efforts considered, student’s conduct considered, grading habit, perceived self-efficacy, approach to grading and difficulties encountered when grading. A confirmatory analysis was further conducted to explore the factor loadings of each item. After the analysis, 28-items were retained, the validated scale was administered to 278 teachers to assess their attitude toward grading practices. Further analysis revealed an overall negative attitude of Basic School teachers towards grading practices. It is recommended that in-service training on grading and reporting should be organized for teachers on regular basis. Also, teachers should be monitored by their head teachers or circuit supervisors to ensure that they adhere to recommended grading practices.
Keywords: Grading Habit, Non-Academic Factors, Grading Practices
Allen, J. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 78(5), 218-223.
Anim, M. E. (2005). Social science research: Conception, methodology, and analysis. Kampala: Makerere University Press.
Brookhart, S. M., & Nitko, A. J. (2008). Assessment and grading in classrooms. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Brookhart, S. M. (2004). Classroom assessment: Tension and intersections in theory and practice. Teachers College Record, 106(3), 429-458.
Brookhart, S. M. (1994). Teachers’ grading: Practice and theory. Applied Measurement in Education, 7(4), 279-301.
Campbell, C., & Evans, J. A. (2000). Investigation of pre-service teachers’ classroom assessment practices during student teaching. The Journal of Educational Research, 93(6), 350‐355.
Cizek, G. J., Fitzgerald, S. M., & Rachor, R. E. (1996). Teachers’ assessment practices: Preparation, isolation, and the kitchen sink. Educational Assessment, 3(2), 159-179.
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (2008). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Ohio, USA: Cengage Learning Pub.
Close, D. (2009). Fair grades. Teaching Philosophy 32(4), 361-398.
Dueck, M. (2014). Grading smarter not harder: Assessment strategies that motivate kids and help them learn. USA:Alexandria, VA.
Ebel, R. L., & Frisbie, D. A. (1991). Essentials of educational measurement (3rd ed.). Englewood: Prentice Hall Inc.
Ebinye, P. O. (2001). Problems of testing under the continuous assessment programme. J. Qual. Educ., 4(1), 12- 19.
Frary, R. B., Cross, L. H., & Weber, L. J. (1993). Testing and grading practices and opinions of secondary teachers of academic subjects: Implications for instruction in measurement. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 12(3), 23-30.
Guskey, T. R. (2009). Running ahead: Teachers’ view of grading and reporting. Paper was presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA, April 2009.
Guskey, T. R. (2006). “It wasn’t fair!” Educators’ recollections of their experiences as students with grading. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
Guskey, T. R. (2004). Are zeroes your ultimate weapon? Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 70(3), 31-35.
Guskey, T. R., & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Developing grading and reporting systems for student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Kubiszyn, T., & Borich, G. (2013). Educational testing and measurement (10th ed.). USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Marzano, R. J. (2000). Transforming classroom grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McMillan, J. H., Myran, S., & Workman, D. (2002). Elementary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices. Research, 95(4), 203–213.
McMillan, J. H. (2001). Secondary teachers’ classroom assessment and grading practices. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20(1), 20-32.
Munk, D. D., & Bursuck, W. D. (2004). Personalized grading plans: A systematic approach to making the grades of included students more accurate and meaningful. Focus on Exceptional Children 36(9), 1-11.
O’Connor, K. (2007). A repair kit for grading: 15 fixes for broken grades. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS survival manual (4th ed.). New York, NY, McGraw Hill.
Quansah, F., & Amoako, I. (2019). Attitude of Senior High School teachers toward test construction: Developing and validating a standardised instrument. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(1), 25-30.
Stiggins, R. J. (2008). Report cards: Assessments for learning. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice.
Stiggins, R. J. (1993). Teacher training in assessment: Overcoming the neglect. In S. L. Wise (Ed.), Teacher training in measurement and assessment skills (pp. 27-40). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Winger, G. T. (2005). Grading to communicate. Educational Leadership, 11, 61- 65.
Wormeli, R. (2006). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14-27.
Yesbeck, D. M. (2011). Grading practices: Teachers’ considerations of academic and non-academic factors (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Richmond, Virginia: Commonwealth University.
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), September 2018, Vol.5, No.1