Taylan Budur1 & Ahmet Demir2 & Fatih Cura3
1Department of Business and Administration, Tishk International University, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
2Department of Business and Administration, Tishk International University, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
3Department of Business and Administration, Tishk International University, Erbil, Iraq
Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop a reliable evaluation criterion to assess the readiness of the education institutions for online education. In this regard, we adopted Lokuge et al. (2019) questionnaire to evaluate universities preparedness in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Based on that, content analysis has been fulfilled with the academicians in the region. The results were analyzed through validity and reliability methodologies. Lastly, the independent samples t-test has been employed to compare the readiness of public and private universities in the region. Therefore, the prior aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire to test the readiness of the universities for online education. Secondly, we aimed to test the questionnaire comparing the readiness of public and private universities. It was found that the adopted questionnaire worked properly in the education field. Therefore, the questionnaire can be used in all educational institutions. Secondly, there is a lack of study in the readiness for online education field after Covid-19. Hence, the current study develops a methodology to measure online education at the universities using a state of art questionnaire.
Keyword: Organizational Readiness, Organizational Change, Change Valance, Change Efficacy, Contextual Factors, Readiness Theory, University Readiness to Online Education, Covid-19 Pandemic, Innovation, Kurdistan, Iraq
Ahmad, A. B., & Cheng, Z. (2018). The role of change content, context, process, and leadership in understanding employees’ commitment to change: The case of public organizations in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Public Personnel Management, 47(2), 195-216.
Ahmad, A. B., Straatmann, T., Mueller, K., & Liu, B. (2020). Employees’ Change Support in the Public Sector—A Multi‐Time Field Study Examining the Formation of Intentions and Behaviors. Public Administration Review.
Andrews, J. O., Newman, S. D., Meadows, O., Cox, M. J., & Bunting, S. (2012). Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research. Health Education Research, 27(4), 555-571.
Altun, M., & Tahir, R. (2020). Motivational Techniques in EFL Classrooms in the Universities of Kurdistan. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(1), 88-94.
Aydın, C. H., & Tasci, D. (2005). Measuring readiness for e-learning: Reflections from an emerging country. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 8(4), 244-257.
Azimi, H. M. (2013). Readiness for implementation of e-learning in colleges of education. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 2(12), 769-775.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986, 23-28.
Benzer, J. K., Charns, M. P., Hamdan, S., & Afable, M. (2017). The role of organizational structure in readiness for change: A conceptual integration. Health services management research, 30(1), 34-46.
Buckenmeyer, J., Hixon, E., Barczyk, C. C., & Feldman, L. (2011). Invest in the Success of Online Programs at the University? Mentor Professors. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 4(6), 1-6.
Budur, T. (2018). Analytic hierarchy process to evaluate corporate image, trust, and switching cost of GSM operators: A case of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(2), 241-250.
Budur, T., & Poturak, M. (2021). Transformational leadership and its impact on customer satisfaction. Measuring mediating effects of organisational citizenship behaviours. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 67-91.
Budur, T., Rashid, C. A., & Poturak, M. (2018). Students’ perceptions on university selection, decision making process: A case study in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(1), 133-144.
Celik, B., & Yildiz, Y. (2017). Commitment to the teaching profession. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 93-97.
Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Nevo, S., Benitez, J., & Kou, G. (2017). Improving strategic flexibility with information technologies: insights for firm performance in an emerging economy. Journal of Information Technology, 32(1), 10-25.
Cheon, J., Lee, S., Crooks, S. M., & Song, J. (2012). An investigation of mobile learning readiness in higher education based on the theory of planned behavior. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1054-1064.
Cutri, R. M., & Mena, J. (2020). A critical reconceptualization of faculty readiness for online teaching. Distance Education, 41(3), 361-380.
Darabi, A. A., Sikorski, E. G., & Harvey, R. B. (2006). Validated competencies for distance teaching. Distance Education, 27(1), 105-122.
Demir, A., Budur, T., Hiwa, M., & Heshmati, A. (2021). Links between Knowledge Management and Organizational Sustainability: Does the ISO 9001 certification have an effect? Knowledge Management Research & Practice (TKMR), Doi: 10.1080/14778238.2020.1860663
Demir, A. (2020b). Impact of Internal Marketing on the Customer Perceptions in SMEs. International Journal of Services and Operations Management. DOI: 10.1504/IJSOM.2020.10033103
Demir, A., Budur, T., & Heshmati, A. (2020 c). Antecedents of trust, corporate image, and switching costs: a case in telecommunication services in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 19(1), 53-74.
Demir, A., Maroof, L., Khan, N. U. S., & Ali, B. J. (2020 a). The role of E-service quality in shaping online meeting platforms: a case study from higher education sector. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.
Easton, S. S. (2003). Clarifying the instructor’s role in online distance learning. Communication Education, 52(2), 87-105.
Gärtner, C. (2013). Enhancing readiness for change by enhancing mindfulness. Journal of Change Management, 13(1), 52-68.
Hamid, D., & Durmaz, O. (2021). Organizational culture impact on employee innovative behaviors in Kurdistan. Black Sea Journal of Management and Marketing, 2(1), 63-72.
Haney, D. (2002). Assessing organizational readiness for e-learning: 70 questions to ask. Performance Improvement, 41(4), 8-13.
Harun, A., & Mansor, Z. (2019). Individual readiness for change in the pre-implementation phase of campus Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) project in Malaysian Public University. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl, 10, 128-134.
Helfrich, C. D., Blevins, D., Smith, J. L., Kelly, P. A., Hogan, T. P., Hagedorn, H., … & Sales, A. E. (2011). Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol. Implementation Science, 6(1), 76.
Holt, D. T., & Vardaman, J. M. (2013). Toward a comprehensive understanding of readiness for change: The case for an expanded conceptualization. Journal of Change Management, 13(1), 9-18.
Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Harris, S. G. (2007). Readiness for organizational change: The systematic development of a scale. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(2), 232-255.
Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., & Feild, H. S. (2007). Toward a comprehensive definition of readiness for change: A review of research and instrumentation. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 16(1), 289-336.
Hosseinpour, M., Koraei, A., & Nasiri, M. (2019). Prediction of the readiness to change acceptance of university staff based on organizational culture components. Journal of Career & Organizational Counseling, 10(37), 71-90
Irfan, M., Putra, S. J., Alam, C. N., Subiyakto, A., & Wahana, A. (2018). Readiness factors for information system strategic planning among universities in developing countries: Systematic Higher Education, 9, 12.
Jaros, S. (2010). Commitment to organizational change: A critical review. Journal of Change Management, 10(1), 79-108.
Jennett, P., Yeo, M., Pauls, M., & Graham, J. (2003). Organizational readiness for telemedicine: implications for success and failure. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 9(2_suppl), 27-30.
Jones, G. R. (1983). Transaction costs, property rights, and organizational culture: An exchange perspective. Administrative Science Quarterly, 454-467.
Jones, R. A., Jimmieson, N. L., & Griffiths, A. (2005). The impact of organizational culture and reshaping capabilities on change implementation success: The mediating role of readiness for change. Journal of Management Studies, 42(2), 361-386.
Kleis, L., Chwelos, P., Ramirez, R. V., & Cockburn, I. (2012). Information technology and intangible output: The impact of IT investment on innovation productivity. Information Systems Research, 23(1), 42-59.
Lee, M. T., Raschke, R. L., & Louis, R. S. (2016). Exploiting organizational culture: Configurations for value through knowledge worker’s motivation. Journal of Business Research, 69(11), 5442-5447.
Lloyd, S. A., Byrne, M. M., & McCoy, T. S. (2012). Faculty-perceived barriers of online education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(1).
Lokuge, S., & Sedera, D. (2020). Enterprise systems lifecycle-wide innovation readiness. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.05089.
Lokuge, S., Sedera, D., Grover, V., & Dongming, X. (2019). Organizational readiness for digital innovation: Development and empirical calibration of a construct. Information & Management, 56(3), 445-461.
Malik, P., & Garg, P. (2017). The relationship between learning culture, inquiry and dialogue, knowledge sharing structure and affective commitment to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
Mart, Ç.T. (2013a). A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(1), 437-442.
Mart, Ç.T. (2013b). Commitment to school and students. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(1), 336-340.
Mart, Ç.T. (2017). Student evaluations of teaching effectiveness in higher education. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(10), 57-61.
Martin, F., Budhrani, K., & Wang, C. (2019). Examining faculty perception of their readiness to teach online. Online Learning, 23(3), 97-119.
Mohammed, K. S., Rashid, C. A., Salih, H. A., & Budur, T. (2020). The role of online teaching tools on the perception of the students during the lockdown of Covid-19. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(3), 178–190.
Molla, A., Cooper, V. A., & Pittayachawan, S. (2009). IT and eco-sustainability: Developing and validating a green IT readiness model. ICIS 2009 proceedings, 141.
Mueller, V., Rosenbusch, N., & Bausch, A. (2013). Success patterns of exploratory and exploitative innovation: A meta-analysis of the influence of institutional factors. Journal of Management, 39(6), 1606-1636.
Nilsen, E. R., Dugstad, J., Eide, H., Gullslett, M. K., & Eide, T. (2016). Exploring resistance to implementation of welfare technology in municipal healthcare services–a longitudinal case study. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1), 657.
Nilsen, P., Wallerstedt, B., Behm, L., & Ahlström, G. (2018). Towards evidence-based palliative care in nursing homes in Sweden: a qualitative study informed by the organizational readiness to change theory. Implementation Science, 13(1), 1.
Olafsen, A. H., Nilsen, E. R., Smedsrud, S., & Kamaric, D. (2020). Sustainable development through commitment to organizational change: The implications of organizational culture and individual readiness for change. Journal of Workplace Learning.
Parasuraman, A., & Colby, C. L. (2015). An updated and streamlined technology readiness index: TRI 2.0. Journal of Service Research, 18(1), 59-74.
Pham, L., Williamson, S., Lane, P., Limbu, Y., Nguyen, P. T. H., & Coomer, T. (2020). Technology readiness and purchase intention: Role of perceived value and online satisfaction in the context of luxury hotels. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 19(1), 91-117.
Poturak, M., Mekić, E., Hadžiahmetović, N., & Budur, T. (2020). Effectiveness of transformational leadership among different cultures. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(3), 119–129.
Rafferty, A. E., Jimmieson, N. L., & Armenakis, A. A. (2013). Change readiness: A multilevel review. Journal of Management, 39(1), 110-135.
Saekow, A., & Samson, D. (2011). E-learning Readiness of Thailand’s Universities comparing to the USA’s Cases. International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 1(2), 126.
Sanders, K. A., Wolcott, M. D., McLaughlin, J. E., D’Ostroph, A., Shea, C. M., & Pinelli, N. R. (2017). Organizational readiness for change: Preceptor perceptions regarding early immersion of student pharmacists in health-system practice. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 13(5), 1028-1035.
Sedera, D., & Dey, S. (2013). User expertise in contemporary information systems: Conceptualization, measurement, and application. Information & Management, 50(8), 621-637.
Serin, H. (2020). The impact of technology-aided instruction on motivation of geometry learners. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(3), 63-72.
Shah, N., Irani, Z., & Sharif, A. M. (2017). Big data in an HR context: Exploring organizational change readiness, employee attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Business Research, 70, 366-378.
Tayyib, N. A., Ramaiah, P., Alshmemri, M. S., Alsolami, F. J., Lind-say, G. M., Alsulami, S. A., & Asfour, H. I. (2020). Faculty members’ readiness implementing e-learning in higher education Saudi Universities: A cross-sectional study. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 13(25), 2558-2564.
Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2019). Impact of operations management strategies on customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions at café-restaurants. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 69(9), 1903-1924.
Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2021). Decision-making, leadership, and performance links in private education institutes. Rajagiri Management Journal. Doi:10.1108/RAMJ-10-2020-0061.
Tran, N. (2020). Factors affecting knowledge sharing behavior of lecturers: The case of public universities. Management Science Letters, 10(12), 2789-2798.
Weeks, W. A., Roberts, J., Chonko, L. B., & Jones, E. (2004). Organizational readiness for change, individual fear of change, and sales manager performance: An empirical investigation. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 24(1), 7-17.
Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation Science, 4, 67.
Weiner, B. J. (2020). A theory of organizational readiness for change. In Handbook on Implementation Science. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Weiner, B. J., Amick, H., & Lee, S. Y. D. (2008). Conceptualization and measurement of organizational readiness for change: a review of the literature in health services research and other fields. Medical Care Research and Review, 65(4), 379-436.
Yeap, S. B., Abdullah, A. G. K., & Thien, L. M. (2020). Lecturers’ commitment to teaching entrepreneurship: do transformational leadership, mindfulness, and readiness for change matter? Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education.
Yilmaz, R. (2017). Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 251-260.
Yusof, N. A. B., Shafiei, M. W. M., Said, I., & Abidin, N. Z. (2010). Factors influencing firms’ readiness towards innovation in house building industry: A multi-dimensional construct. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, 2(3).
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies
ISSN 2520-0968 (Online), ISSN 2409-1294 (Print), March 2021, Vol.8, No.1
Copyright © 2014 by Tishk International University, Developed and Designed by RAS Groups and M. Albay (IU Web Office Manager)
replica rolex is among the most international greatest perplexing watch survey of the brand. Put to use fake watches during the world-wide industry is also extremely well known.Customers from all of areas of life really like breitling replica watches. The initial financial investment valuation belongs to the benefits associated with best replica watches.